Rock excavation methods pdf

Test pit, trenches, shaft tunnels, and drifts are the ground excavation methods used for the in situ examination of soils and rocks. Material in a sloped, layered system where the layers dip into the excavation or a slope of four horizontal to one vertical 4h. Sloping the sides of the excavation to an angle not steeper than 11 for every foot of depth, the trench must be. The excavation standards describe various methods and approaches that can be used to design protective systems.

A pdf version of this document can be downloaded from. Rock excavation methods drilling rig explosive material scribd. In order to avoid longterm slope instability and increased maintenance costs, designers should measure and evaluate prominent discontinuities on the rock face using a scan line survey and computerbased kinematic analysis, also known as a equal area net or stereonet analysis. This paper gives an outline of the method of making a slot by continuous hole drilling, the fracturing machine and its system, and the actual tunnel excavating. Pdf 05 chapter 3 rock excavation methods sohail tarar.

Removal of igneous, metamorphic, or sedimentary rock or stone, boulders over two cubic yards in volume in open areas and one cubic yard in volume in trenches. Choice of rock excavation methods for the swedish deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. Nature of subsoil affect type of machine used and the necessity of soil protection. University of rizona mining and geological engineering rock excavation mne 415 515. Rock excavation methods drilling rig explosive material. Detail estimating rock excavation grading 91 10 b20624 weathered, but the key is that it has not been moved from its natural bed. Mechanical methods can be split further to partial face e.

A read is counted each time someone views a publication summary such as the title, abstract, and list of authors, clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the fulltext. Rock excavation free download as powerpoint presentation. Drilling and blasting technology is one of the main methods for pressure relief in deep mining. Rock excavation tools drilling and excavation technologies for. Examples of protective systems that can be used to comply with the excavation standards include. The most common method of production blasting in quarrying, strip mining, and construction excavation is bench blasting. Pdf drilling and blasting as a tunnel excavation method. Drilling and blasting as a tunnel excavation method.

Drilling and blasting as a tunnel excavation method researchgate. Chapter 9 general rock removal national park service. Scale of work large volume of excavation may involve complicated phasing arrangement and work planning 4. Submerged soil or soil from which water is freely seeping. Rock excavation tools disintegrate and remove the rock from boreholes and tunnels by four basic mechanisms.

Norwegian tunnelling technology norsk forening for. The rock excavation d lunnslling techniques in norway have always been closely linked and adapted to meet the actual ground conditions. Scribd is the worlds largest social reading and publishing site. University of rizona mining and geological engineering. For smaller rock breaking compressed air based jack hammer shall be employed. Rock excavation tools the national academies press. Size of excavation affect type of machine used and method to excavate. The rock hardness is estimated and transferred to a pdf map with weakness zones.

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